Kolams and sona are the subject of ethnomathematics. There are links at the end of this web page. Example of a kolam, example of a lusona
In other regions, point grids and lines are dispensed with. Instead, coloured areas or carpets of flowers are laid out. Rice flour is replaced by stone powder or chalk powder, often together with natural or synthetic colour powders. The pictures, which always have rotational symmetry, are presented together with the stroke kolams at celebrations, at festivals, in competitions and on the internet. These kolams often have the name rangoli. Simple Example
Example of a Kolam The structure of a kolam is understood by looking for closed lines. They become visible by a yellow coloration. - There are four outer figures and a central circle. - In the center is a rounded cross. - A square with tines surrounds the figure.
Drawing Exercises Just like mandalas of the Far Eastern cultures, the line kolams lend themselves to your own activities. As a suggestion, I show some pictures drawn with MSPaint. The programme is available to anyone who uses Windows.
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2 3 Of course you can do it without a computer, all you need is a pencil with an eraser or a biro and paper. - Draw a square frame as above and design a pattern inside. - Draw a simple dot pattern and try to find as many figures as possible for it. - Watches a video of simple kolam, stop it, draw the half-finished figure and then finish it without the video. - Give a simple kolam and change it. - ...
Simple Example The figure to a 4x3 grid is a lusona. It therefore consists of a closed line without beginning and end.
As the Sona complement stories, they often depict animals. Antelope
Leopard
Three Birds
A Fable
Drawing Exercises Drawing sona is difficult because of the closed line. This will be discussed in the next chapter.
In Search of Sona The question arises which rectangular figures m*n is a lusona. Here are four examples: These four examples illustrate the following rules. - A closed line only results if m and n have no common divisor. - If several closed lines are necessary to create the figure, the number of curves is equal to the greatest common divisor. The rectangles to the leopard family have the data 10*3 and 2x3, their dimension numbers have no common divisor.
Inner two-sided mirrors
With the insertion of a mirror, a figure can no longer created by a closed line.
The question is, where mirrors must be placed so that the figure remains a lusona. For this purpose, all possible positions of up to five mirrors are played through. ...
In the case of one interior mirror, there is a simple rule. For this, a pattern of dark and light fields must be introduced for the 4x3 lusona.
Apparently, the rule does not apply to compact figures that cannot be drawn from a closed line. This is proven by the following example. The coloring is also no longer clear. ... Paulus Gerdes When researching, it becomes clear that the lusona research was founded and advanced by the scientist Paul Gerdes. He wrote numerous papers on the subject and gathered many students around him who studied lusona. He was Dutch, a professor of mathematics in Mozambique from 1976 and also took up citizenship there.
Indian Sand Painting
German Beach Painting :-)
Knight's Tour
German arte.tv
Henning Krause (Spektrum) Dr. Henning Krause (Spektrum) Ethnomathematik - dargestellt am Beispiel der Sona Geometrie Labbé pulli-kolams, Was sind Sona? M. Weber, A. Mischau (Mathematisches Panorama) Mathematik und (bzw. in) andere(n) Kulturtechniken (.pdf-Datei) Wikipedia Kolam, Sona (Mathematik), Paulus Gerdes, Ethnomathematik , Sandbild, Sandanimation English Darrah Chavey
Darrah Chavey Constructing Symmetric Chokwe Sand Drawings Forkphorus Drawing program Ljiljana Radovic MIRROR CURVES Marcia Ascher (spektrum.de) Ethnomathematik: Die Kolam-Figuren Südindiens Mattia De’ Michieli Vitturi Sona drawings, mirror curves and pattern designs NN Sona - Sand Drawings from Africa Paulus Gerdes m-Canonic mirror curves Paulus Gerdes Geometria Sona de Angola Matemática duma Tradição Africana Portuguese, 191 pages, lots of illustrations Slavik Jablan, Ljiljana Radovi, Radmila Sazdanovi Ana Zekovi Knots in Art South African History Online Sona Patterns - Revisiting the Contributions of the People in Sub-Saharan Africa to Modern Mathematics Wikipedia Kolam, Rangoli,Lusona, Sandpainting, Sand animation, Sand mandala, Ethnomathematics, Zenigata_Sunae Youtube Pongal' theme for Chennai's Kolam and Rangoli competition A meeting of women artists Youtube Angolan Sand Drawings Some drawings and stories Youtube CHIKKU KOLAM WITH 10-2 DOTS | HOW TO DRAW A SIKKU KOLAM | NELI KOLAM Example of an Indian floor painting Youtube Kolam designs Collection of videos
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